Culture of Bihar :
Bihar is very rich in culture and its tradition. The different culture decorated Bihar in its own way. Along with the handicrafts, there are many wall hangings, miniatures of paper, wooden stools, stone pottery, leather goods, bamboo work & furniture and appliqué. Bihar is very popular for the Madhubani paintings. These works that belongs to the art and the crafts of Bihar are often seen in the city homes and are exported in many cities. There is a strict monopoly for the women in Mithila, Madhubani artists work with the natural colours on cloth and paper that depicts the culture and the stories of religious event and mythological epics.
The designs in the ancient colours can be seen on the wall which are usually made up of mud in the Sahara District, Muzaffarpur, Darbhanga, Vaishali, Bhagalpur and Samastipur and of course the popular Madhubani paintings that form the trade centre for their unique art.
Since the major populations here are the Hindus, the festivals like Saraswati Puja, Holi, Dassherra or Durga Pooja, Deepawali, Bhai dooj are celebrated grandly. But the Chhat Pooja is dedicated to the Sun God is considered to be the unique festival celebrated here. The festival starts on the 4th day on the month of Karthik Shukla Paksha (2nd fortnight of Karthik). This might change according to the last week of October to the mid of November, it depends upon the year. It is one of the holy festivals of Bihar and extends around 4 days.
Nihar has a very old tradition to sing songs on every occasion. Hence, the people residing here have different songs respective to the occasion such as birth ceremonies, gauna, marriages and many other. They sing song all together in harmony. The musical instruments like dholak and tables and even harmonium are used occasionally.
Bihar has special songs for the occasion of holi which are known as Phagua which are full of fun and rhythms. During the later part of the 19th century when the condition of Bihar was very critical due to the rule of the British, many people from the state of Bihar had migrated to the West Indian Islands, Mauritius and Fiji. During this period, the sad songs and plays were emerged called Biraha which later became most popular in the state of Biharis. After this particular period, the plays were continued and the later played in the theaters of Patna. Theater is another form of the art and culture of Biharis through which they expresses their feelings and talent. Forms of the theaters that are present in Bihar are Reshma-Chuharmal, Bahura-Gorin, Bihula-Bisahari, Sama-Chakvena, Raja-Salhesh, and Dom-Kach. All these forms have their origin in the Anga area of Bihar.
The state has many writers like Raja Radhika Raman Singh, Divakar Prasad Vidhyarthy, Shiva Pujan Sahay, Ram Brikhsha Benipuri, Phanishwar Nath Renu and Baba Nagarjun.
Bihar is a beautiful place to visit and a colorful state.
Bihar is considered to be one of the most important states in the eastern part of India. It covers an area of 94, 163 square kilometers. The elevation of the state is above 173 feet high above the sea level. Bihar is surrounded by Nepal in its north where as the other sides of Bihar consists of Jharkhand in the south, West Bengal in the east and Uttar Pradesh in the West. If Bihar is considered geographically, it is divided into three different region i.e. Indo-Gigantic plains, northern mountainous region and the southern plateau system. The southern region of the Bihar lies the Tarai region a belt of swampy, marshy, sparsely populated and bit unhealthy region.
The North Gangetic division lies in the south of Tarai. The fertile alluvim extract from this region is the product of great Himalayans and Peninsular rivers like Budi Gandak, Gandak, Mahananda, Koshi, Gogra, Bagmati and the few small rivulets and rivers. The Gangetic plains divide the Bihar in north south direction because of the presence of Ganga River which is flowing across this region. South of Bihar has many hummocky hills that result into the continuous erosion because of the perennial rivers flowing through it. Further in the south of Bihar there lies the plateau region that has Kaimur plateau in its west and Chotta Nagpur in its east. Since it lies in the centre, it has the monsoonal climate and the temperature is quite moderate here. It faces the similar climatic condition as the other state from the India experience due to its centric location.
The moderate temperature of the Bihar that lies in between 25 to 27 degrees north latitude contributes to sub tropical climate of Bihar. Nevertheless this region is very close to the Tropic of Cancer due to which the climate of which is quite hot in summer. Bihar experiences very hot summers just like the other states of India. The average temperature in summer is around 40 - 45 degree Celsius. April and June in Bihar are the hottest month as compared to the other months of the year. December to January is the season of winter as it is placed near the northern hemisphere. Bihar has the wild winter as the temperature here touches around 5 – 10 degree Celsius. Bihar experiences the maximum amongst of rainfall from southwest monsoon wind that exists from June to September. The rainfall calculated in Bihar is roughly 120 cm.
Bihar is located in the transitional zone that lies in between the wet climate of North eastern provinces and West Bengal and also on the Semi arid region of western part of Bihar. Hence, the natural vegetation is well flourished in Bihar with the moist deciduous type of forest. These types of forests are mainly found in the southern and the northern part of Uttar Pradesh. There are three types of soil found on the land of Bihar are alluvium, montane, and the marshy or swampy soil of Tarai. Demographic information of state Bihar is quite interesting. Bihar is dominated with the rural flocks that contribute around 90% of the total population. Around half of the population is around 25 years and are in the productive periods. The 83% of the total population here mainly follows Hinduism while the Islamic is being practiced by 17 % of the population.
Bihar was very famous as Magadha in the ancient age. The state capital of Bihar, Patna was known as Patliputra in those days. Bihar is considered to be the land of Buddha since it has witness the glorious period of ancient Indian history. The state is being mentioned in the great epics, Vedas and the Puranas. The most important activities of Buddhas and the great 24th Jain Tirthankar had taken place in this region. Bihar has a very ancient history, it starts from beginning of the human civilization. The myths and the legends of the earlier days of the Hindu Religion have the Sanatana (Eternal) Dharma which is deeply associated with Bihar. Sita, the lover of Lord Rama and daughter of Janak king of Videha was very famous as Bihar. The great authors of great epic that belongs to the Hindu Religion,The Ramayana, Maharishi Valmiki had lived in the Ancient Bihar.
It is in Bihar where Buddha has achieved his enlightenment. At present, it is known as Bodh Gaya situated in the central part of Bihar. Mahavir found the great religion, Jainism in Bihar. The last and the tenth guru of Sikhs, Guru Gobind Singh was born and has attained the sainthood from Sikhism.
There were many important revolutions that took place during the period of Independence.