Capital : Agartala
Largest City : Agartala
Districts : 4
Area Rank : 26th
Total Area : 10,491.69 Sq. km
Population : 3, 671, 032
Density : 349.9 per Sq. km
Official Language : Bengali and Kokborok
Tripura is located in the north-eastern part of India and the native of people are called as Tiprasa or Tripuris. Tripura is situated adjoining the land of water and extreme southern-western part of North- East. The land receives hillocks, flat lands, hilly slopes, rivers and the forest area is stretched in between 91.0 degree till 92.20 degree in East Longitude and in North Latitude as 22.56 degree till 24.32 degree. The major towns of Tripura are Jowai, Shillong, William, Nongstoin, Baghmara, Nagar, Nongph and Tura. The major crops cultivated here are Jute, Rice, Mustard and Rape Seed. People of Tripura widely practiced on plantation for Coffee and Rubber. Pineapple, Banana, Jackfruit, Guava, Chilli, Pear, Turmeric, Ginger, Brinjal, Sweet potato, Cashew, Tapioca and Pear are major vegetables and fruits employ by Tripurians.
From the south, west and north, the state is surrounded by Bangladesh. According to the area, Tripura is third smallest state of India. Formerly, the state was independent under the Tripuri Kingdom and later was merged with independent India on 15th October, 1949. The state has a mesmersing history of more than 2500 yrs and about 186 kings rule the state during the British Raj. According to historiographer, the term Tripura is derived from two diverse words pra and twi. Pra signifies near and Twi resembles water. The state is extended up to Bay of Bengal. It is also said that the word Tripura is derived from presiding Goddess “Tripura Sundari”, well known for its 51 Peethas Shakti.
The history of Tripura is as old as what we have read about Indian history. The state is mentioned several times when we go through the pages of Mahabharata, also the Puranas including the inscriptions of Ashoka’s Emperor. The state has tenacious history fascinated by the unique culture and folklore by the tribal peoples. In the past years, it was also called as the Kirat Desh. Though it is not difficult to know the existence of Tripura, how it came in to existence. It is possible that the state was named from the mightiest ruler Tripur, son of Daitya. Tripur is mentioned many times in the Kurukshetra war, which is described as one of the unreligious and powerful in Shivmahapuran and thus was killed by Lord Shiva. Her widow Hiravati was damned with spiritual and religious son namely Trilochana, also known as Subrai Raja. Trilolachna is worshipped and adored equivalent to Lord Rama by the Tripurians.
Till the 20th century, the majority of the people were Tripurians but at the beginning of 21st century they were turned into minority as the land of forefathers. The state now includes 31 % of other local folks. Earlier the state was filled with Bengali Muslim people, but the influx in Tripura separated this people towards Pakistan leaving behind now in majority of Hindu Bengali. It is believed that this happened after the Ino-Pak war during 1971, where mass migration of Muslim Bengali was shifted to Bangladesh.
Tripura is a hilly territory along with varying altitudes from 50 to 3080 ft, greater than the sea level and thus most of the population lives in plains. The states range in between the latitude of 22o56' and 24o32 in north, whereas in longitude it lies in 91o10' and 92 21’ east. Tripura is the seven states that lies in north east part of India. The state is surrounded by south east, west, and north and east by Bangladesh, whereas on the east it lies with common border with Mizoram and Assam. The physical features of Tripura are totally different from north towards south and hence are called as land of interspersed ravines, hillocks and hills. Moving towards north are four valleys each separated with height of about 1,000m.
As it is located on the north east bi-graphic zone, the state possesses, extremely enrich in the bio-diversity. The flora and fauna of Ind0-Chinese and Ind0-Malayan sub regions are enhancing. The wide range of area is occupied with dense forest and hence is inhabitant of various sanctuaries. There are more than 37- species of trees, 581 herbs, 320 shrubs, 16 climbing shrubs, 45 epiphytes, and 165 climbers.
From the east side of Tripura are the hill range of Sakham, Jampoi, Bara Mura, Langtarai and Athara Mura. Be-talang Shiv is the highest peak in Jampoi. There are number of elongated and broad ravines that start from Agartala to Udaipur to Sabrum, then from Khowai to Teliamura to Amarpur and so on. The Manu, the Haorah, the Khowati, the Gomati and the Muhuri are few rivers in Tripura. The largest river of the state is Gomati.
The Climate of the state is usually hot & humid. The maximum temp is 35 degree Celsius during May to June, whereas 10.5 degree Celsius in the month of December to January. The state receives average rainfall about 230cm per annum. Tripura is an idyllic masterpiece of water and mass land. Due to wide variety of species found in the forests, the state is widely known for medicinal products.
The society and culture of Tripura is a perfect blend of contemporary and traditional aspects. Most of the society is comprised of tribal groups such as Bengali and Manipuri communities. Tripura encircles with affluent cultural heritage of fine arts, music, handicrafts and performing arts. As the state is dominated by Bengalis, the ubiquitous culture is followed by Bengali religion. It has several ethno-linguistic groups such as Reang, Tripuris, Noatia, Jamatai, Murasing, Koloi, Halam, Kuki, Munda, Uchoi, Snathal, Oraon, Lushai, Chakma and Mogh, an amalgamated culture is thus originated. Tripura was dominated by the famous Empire of Manikya. The social structure of Tripura shows harmonious continuation of tribal communities. There are numerous property inheritance and marriage customs which showcases intrinsic traits of the people.
People over here are majority from the migrants of Bangladesh and West Bengal. There are 19 tribal communities, Manipuris and Bengalis who constitute states population. It is observed that people from tribal community follows all customs and tradition with total dedication and efficiency. Hinduism is widely practiced followed by both Tripuris and Bengalis, whereas Christianity, Islam and Buddhism are also followed by the people but in minority. Brahmins in Tripura are called as Chantais, who are keepers of religious “Dharma”. People worshiped Goddess Tripureshwari and Lord Shiva, whereas there are many fertile Gods been worshipped by Tripura’s.
The main festivals of Tripura are Kharchi Puja, Kher Puja and Garai Puja celebrated with full of enthusiasm. People from neighboring states join these festivals, as it is believed that blessing offered by deities are powerful. The original music developed by people are Khamb, Sarinda, Lebang, Khengrong, Sumui, Choongreng and Do-Tara. On remarkable occasions people of Tripura delightful dance such as Bihu, Padisha, Wangala, Chimithang, Sangraiaka, Dhamali, Abhngma, Rabindra, Gajan and Rasi. Garai dance is more popular as it symbolizes prosperity of people by Cheraw and Hai Hak dance.
Inhabitants of Tripura have their own aboriginal cuisine and culture that is quite different from other parts of India. As they are located in North East part of India, most of the communities are comprised with Uchoi, Tipra, Reang, Noatia, Jamatia and many more. Though there are various communities, people follow some traditional cuisines adapted from Bengali community. People over here prefer non-vegetarian delicacy more instead of vegetarian food. In most of the families, people prepared Bengali food. The major food items are Chakhwi, Muitru and Mwkhwi. In Kokborok, they called rice as Mai. There are varieties of rice such as Guriya, Mami and Maisa. The Mui Borok is their traditional cuisine.
Major Food Items :
Vegetarian : Dorompai, Thaihchumu, Khaklu, Momphol, Siping, Chahumura, Moso, Siping, Phantok, Belso, Lubiya, Orai, Kholkleng, Thah, Kham, Banta, Gunthu, Khumchak, Muiching, Khumtwisa, Khumjar and many more.
Non-Vegetarian : Pork, Mutton, Chicken, Prawns, Fish, Turtle, Beef, Frogs, Crabs and various sea foods.
Tripura is known for its ostentatious temples, palaces, vibrant culture and simmering lakes. Tucked in south part of North-Eastern region, the three side of state is bounded by Bangladesh, Mizoram and Assam. The Tripura Sundari Temple is one of 51 pithasthans in India, as claim by Hindu Mythology. It is also known as Kurma Pith, as the structure of temple resembles “Kurma” means Tortoise. Inside the temple, “Maa Kaali” is worshipped and idol of her is called as “Chotta Maa”. The Maharaja Palace of Tripura is considered as one of the best royal palace that was rule by the rulers for long period. This palace is nice to visit as the architect is truly mesmersing that pulls back in that era. The temple of Mata Bari is famous in Tripura and once of the sacred place, where people across the world visit. It is believed that, wishes that are put in front of Mata gets granted and hence it is worshipped by grandeur and glory. The other major part of Tripura lies in Unnakoti Caves. This cave is beautiful that attracts because of the fine work done on the walls of the caves. The Neermahal Water Place is another major tourist attraction situated in middle of the lake, Rudrsagar. Besides these there are various other monuments and museums that are worth to spend time under the shades of these places.