Bhavani River takes pride in posing as the second largest river of Tamil Nadu. The most important tributary are River Kaveri which is the longest river in Tamil Nadu. The Bhavini is measured around 217 kilometers which the long river is flowing through out the year. The watershed of this river is around 6200 square kilometer that has spread on the land of Tamil Nadu (87%), Kerala (9%) and the Karnataka (4%). The main river runs through entire Tamil Nadu. Around 90% of the water from the river is utilized for agriculture. There are around 6 million people that lies across the banks. The municipal, agricultural and the Industrial pollution of the river has resulted in the poor condition of water and bad impact on the health of the People. Leather, Textile, Sugar, Slaughter House, Paper and the Industrial waste are located across the river and all its tributaries at many such points.
Head Waters :
The head water of the river are located on the Eastern slopes arising from the Western Ghats in the region of Attappadi Reserve Forest in the district of Palakkad of Kerala, the southwest corner in the Kunda Hills of the Nilgiris of Tamil Nadu. Today, the upper portion of the river is being created near the huge Bhaktavatsalam Sagar Reserviour. The river flows in the direction northwest to the Karnataka, draining from the south slope that belongs to the Nilgiri Hills, then it flows for few kilometer southwards and it gets in the state of Karnataka. There are deep gorges in this region and then it continues ahead with 20 kilometers in between Mukkali from forested ridges.
There are almost 12 main rivulets running into the southern region of the Nilgiri slopes. The east and the west Varagar tributaries draining through the Niligiris which are the largest of all and they all have dams in the state of Tamil Nadu. Bhavani moves ahead with the 120 degree turn from the north east at Mukkali and further flows for 25 kilometers from Attappady plateau and around 7 kilometers around the border of the inter state.
The Kunda River coming from the North reinforces the Bhavani River. The Kunda River gives more water in the extensive region from the Nilgiris and that creates a boundary in between Kerala and Tamil Nadu covering the distance of around 5 kilometers. It meets the River Bahvani on the left bank in the western region of Tamil Nadu in a beautiful place known as Athikadavu. The River Siruvani which is a perennial river that belongs to the Coimbatore District and the River Kodungarapallam running from the south east and the south that joins the River Bhavani in the region of Koodappatti on the border of Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
Afterwards, from this region Bhavani River runs in the east direction running through the base from the Nilgiris and joins the Arulmigu Bathra - Kalimman Temple near the Mettupalayam and again starts its flow with Coonoor River that has its beginning from the region of Coonor from the North West. This is the place where it creates a valley in between the Nilgiri Slopes through the Northern slopes and the Bilgiri Hills from the Southern slopes. Running from the region of the Moyar the river has blocked the Dam known as Lower Bhavani which created a small reservoir nearby Sathyamangalam in the district of Erode. The river flows through the east at a distance of about 160 kilometers from the district of Erode, running through the Kodiveri Dam at Gobichettipalayam and in the Bhavani Taluks prior merging with the River Cauvery. The Bhavani flows from the east past of the Sathyamangalam. The dam of Kodiveri pours the water near Gobichettipalayam in Thadappalli and the Arakkankottai canals that are built specially for the purpose of agriculture.
There is a small barrage that is found across this river at a very small distance prior to joining the river Kaveri was constructed by the Kalingarayan in the period of 1283 AD that drains water in Kalingarayan irrigation canal at the distance of around 56 kilometers. The River Noyyal meets at Aavudaiaaparai.
The River Bhavani meets the River Kaveri in the northern region of the Erode. There is a temple known as Shri Sangamneshwar Temple at the convergence of the two rivers are considered to be the most important pilgrimage spot.